Foreign policy and defense
San Marino is traditionally neutral, but for
geographical and historical reasons very dependent on
Italy. The two countries have concluded a wide range of
agreements in different areas, and the foundation is the
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation of 1862, which was
last revised in 1971.
Relations have worked without major problems, with
the exception of the political conflict after the Second
World War (see H istoria). In recent years,
financial co-operation has also intensified
contradictions regarding San Marino's position as a tax
haven (see Current policy).
Overview of business holidays and various national observances in San Marino for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024 and 2025.
The goal for San Marino has been to play an important
role and strengthen its position internationally,
despite its smallness. As part of this endeavor, the
country has gained membership in a number of
international organizations, such as the Council of
Europe in 1988 and the UN in 1992. San Marino has
official relations with over 100 countries and embassies
in some of these.
San Marino does not belong to the EU, but Italy and
San Marino are a common customs area with a common
currency, and thus San Marino is part of a customs union
with the EU and is part of the euro area. In a
referendum in October 2013, just over half of residents
voted for EU membership, but turnout was too low for the
result to be valid. The EU also concluded that the Union
was not fit to receive such small Member States, but in
March 2015 began negotiations on specific agreements in
a number of areas with Europe's micro-states (besides
San Marino and Andorra and Monaco).
There is no general military duty, but citizens
between the ages of 16 and 55 can be called in to defend
the state. For order and security, the gendarmerie is
responsible for about 100 men - the equivalent of